If I try to use an @Injected JMSContext while executing within a background task (ManagedExecutorService) or thread (ManagedThreadFactory), I get the attached stacktrace. I've experienced this a number of times with Wildfly 10.1.0, including messages sent in Infinispan's expiry task thread.
My original workaround was to submit an additional task on a separate thread to send the message, then wait for it to complete. That seemed unreliable (sometimes it would still produce NameNotFoundException). I've resorted to creating my own JMSContext by using @Resource( lookup="java:/ConnectionFactory" ) and sending messages that way. Both workarounds prevent the message sending logic from participating in any ongoing transactions.
I'm also attaching a sample EAR project. It can be built with Maven. It creates a background task that waits 3 seconds and then tries to send a JMS message in a new transaction using an injected JMS context. I use the standalone-full.xml profile to run it.